Definition: Diseases and infections which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man. (Ref: W.H.O., 1951, Expert Committee on Zoonoses, WHO tech rep. Ser No 40).
- Anthropozoonoses: Diseases in animals that can be transmitted to man (eg. rabies).
- Zooanthroponoses: Diseases in humans that can be transmitted to animals (eg. tuberculosis in cats, monkeys).
- Amphixenoses: Diseases affecting humans and animals that can be occasionally transmitted from one to another (eg. staphyloccocal infection).
- Euzoonoses: Diseases in which humans are an obligatory host of the agent (eg. Taenia solium or T. saginata)
Some Major Bacterial Etiologic Agents of New Zoonoses
- E. coli O157:H7
- Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
- Helicobacter pylori and other spp.
- Ehrlichia chaffeensis (HME)
- Bartonella henselae (Cat scratch Disease)
- Rickettsia felis (Murine typhus like)
- E. Equi/A. phagocytophila (HGE)
Some Major Viral Etiologic Agents of New Zoonoses
- Guanarito virus (Venezuelan hemor. fever)
- Sin nombre virus (Hantavirus Pulm.Syndr.)
- Sabia virus (Brazilian hemorrhagic fever)
- Hendra virus (Equine morbillivirus)
- Australian bat Lyssavirus (Rhabdovirus)
- Menangle virus (paramyxovirus)
- Influenza virus H5N1 (Hong Kong)
- Nipah virus (Paramyxovirus)
- Influenza virus H9N2 (Hong Kong)
- SARS (Coronavirus)
Types on the basis of Epidemiological cycle/Modes of transmission:
- Orthozoonoses: Disease transmission cycle can be completed with only one vertebrate reservoir (eg. rabies).
- Cyclozoonoses: Diseases whose maintenance cycle requires more than one vertebrate species, but no invertebrate host (eg., hydatid disease, taeniasis).
- Pherozoonoses (or Metazoonoses): Diseases whose maintenance cycle requires both vertebrates and invertebrates to complete their transmission cycle (eg. arboviruses).
- Saprozoonoses: Diseases that depend upon inanimate reservoirs or development sites, as well as upon vertebrate hosts (eg. listeriosis)
Depending on Clinical manifestations:
- Phanerozoonoses: Zoonoses for which symptoms are observed in animals and humans. They may be Iso-symptomatic (Symptoms are the same in humans and animals eg. Rabies, tuberculosis) or Aniso-symptomatic (Symptoms are different in humans and animals eg. Q fever, anthrax)
- Cryptozoonoses: Zoonoses for which there is only infection without symptoms in animals and/or humans. eg.
- Infection in animals/disease in humans: ornithosis
- Infection in humans/disease in animals: Ebola
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