Syndromes commonly asked in PGMEE – Part 1

  • AFFERENT LOOP SYNDROME: Gastrojejunal loop obstruction, proximal to a gastrojejunostomy. features – Ingestion of food produces nausea, pain, and duodenal distension.


  • ASHERMAN’S SYNDROME: Adhesions within the endometrial cavity, causing amenorrhea and infertility. Adhesions probably secondary to surgery.


  • ADAMS-STOKES SYNDROME: Heart block, with slow or absent pulse, often accompanied by convulsions.

Medical Syndromes


  • BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME: Iinjury or damage to half of spinal cord


    • Loss of pain and temperature sensation on contralateral side of body.
    • Loss of proprioception and discriminatory touch on ipsilateral side of body.


  • BARLOW SYNDROME: Also called Floppy Mitral Valve Syndrome; Massive Mitral Valve Prolapse. features –  Late apical systolic murmur, systolic click, or both.


  • BEHCET’S SYNDROME: Vasculitis. Secondary symptoms:
    • Oral and genital ulcers
    • Uveitis
    • Optic atrophy


  • CARCINOID SYNDROME: Carcinoid tumor producing Bradykinin + Serotonin ——> secondary symptoms:
    • Cyanotic flushing
    • Diarrhea
    • Bronchial spasm
    • Edema, ascites.


  • EISENMENGER’S SYNDROME: Ventricular-Septal Defect features – Pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis.


  • FLOPPY-VALVE SYNDROME: Myxomatous degeneration of the valves causing .


  • GARDNER’S SYNDROME: Multiple inherited tumors, hereditary dominant trait.
    • Skull osteomas, Fibromas, Epidermoid cysts
    • Colonic polyposis (APC gene) ——> predisposition to colonic adenocarcinoma.


  • LAMBERT-EATON SYNDROME: Progressive proximal muscle weakness secondary to a carcinoma. may be confused with Parkinsonism.


  • LERICHE’S SYNDROME: Aortoiliac Occlusion. Occlusion of distal aorta, mainly at the bifurcation of descending aorta. Present with
    • Hip, thigh, and calf fatigue.
    • Impotence


  • MEIGS’ SYNDROME: Fibroma of ovary with ascites and hydrothorax


  • PANCOAST SYNDROME: Occurs due to Tumor near pulmonary apex
    • Neuritic pain of chest and arm
    • Muscle atrophy of the arm
    • Horner’s Syndrome (impaired cervical sympathetics)


  • PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME: Polyposis (hamartomas) of small intestine
    • Also see melanin pigmentation of buccal mucosa and skin around mouth and lips


  • SHOULDER-HAND SYNDROME: Pain in shoulder and swelling in hand, sometimes occurring after Myocardial Infarction.


  • SICK SINUS SYNDROME: Chaotic atrial activity; continual changes in P-Waves. Bradycardia, alternating with recurrent ectopic beats and runs of tachycardia.


  • SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME: Caused by obstruction of Superior Vena Cava by tumor. Obstruction of SVC features
    • Edema
    • Engorgement of the vessels of face, neck, and arms.
    • Nonproductive cough
    • Dyspnea


  • TAKAYASU’S SYNDROME: Arteritis of the Aortic Arch, resulting in no pulse. Seen in young children. Females > Males.


  • WOLF-PARKINSON WHITE SYNDROME: Paroxysmal Tachycardia seen on ECG. Features –
    • Short PR interval
    • Delta wave (early QRS complex).


  • ULYSSES SYNDROME: Ill effects from follow-up diagnostic tests following a false-positive screening test.

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very nice
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